Technology almost touched every aspect of living and nonliving things. Advancement in technology tremendously helpful in the field of scientific research. Archeological Survey is one of the vast areas of study and research. As it plays a vital role in the collection of information and knowledge about our ancient cultural heritage. Archaeologists keep on exploring the ancient heritage buried under the earth.
Archaeology deals with searching for the residues under surfaces. In search of sub-surface objects, it becomes challenging to dig at the right place. Even archaeologists fail to predict the right surface to dig. In this scenario, technology becomes a crucial factor. With advancements in technology in various fields of research, the archeological investigation also got some technological aid too. To simplify the approach of archaeological survey, engineers and scientists developed various investigation devices.
Ground-penetrating radar is the device that helps in archeological surveys and investigations. Before the invention of GPR, investigating the sub surfaces is like shooting an arrow without knowing the target. It was very much difficult for the archeologists to choose the right surface to dig.
Archeology is a study that taught us to identify and evaluate the geophysical conditions which help to make a rough prediction about the surface being dug. As it can not give the exact idea of the surface being dug, which results in the wrong selection of surface to dig. It may sometimes cause wastage of huge amounts of time and money. But things have quite changed with the inventions of GPR.
GPR is an investigation device that uses a geophysical method. it also helps to choose the exact surface to dig, which reduces the wastage of efforts, time, and money.
It is also known as an extrusive method of survey.
GPR can be used to investigate underground utilities like concrete, metals, asphalt, and masonry.
GPR consists of three main elements:
Control Unit (Screen with operating module)
Antenna (For receiving the reflected radiations)
GPR uses electromagnetic radiations in the range of microwave bands. These electromagnetic radiations passed through the sub surfaces, the intensity of passing of radiations depends on many factors. The reason behind the reduction in radiation intensity is the medium through which the radiographic waves are mean to be traveled. The radiation intensity is different for a different medium. The intensity of radiations depends on the electromagnetic conductivity of the ground. The stronger the electromagnetic conductivity more the depth of penetration of radiation.
How GPR works?
GPR emits electromagnetic radiations into the surfaces, these electromagnetic radiations travel under the surface until it disturbed by the obstacles. Once these radiations hit on the obstacles then these radiations get reflected towards the surface from which they started traveling initially. The reflected electromagnetic waves get received by the antenna, which further helps to analyze the subsurface activity.
The antenna records the variations in the signals reflected. This recorded data shown on the screen for a better understanding of subsurface residues. This recorded data helps to analyze the subsurface residues.
GPR can work in media like rock, soil, ice, and freshwater. The limitation to this method is the electromagnetic conductivity of the surface being investigated. This method has some base rules that become important to be followed during the investigation. There are various manufacturers of GPR, every one of them having its design but the basic principle of operation and handling is the same. As every manufacturer provides proper guidelines for handling the equipment, that becomes the additional advantage to deal with this. Basic thumb rules and guidelines for operation makes it easy to use the device for archeological investigations